In Gordium , capital of Phrygia, he is claimed to have famously cut the Gordian Knot which the oracles claimed meant Alexander would be king of Asia. Following his death the land was governed by his general Antigonus in the north and west and his other general Seleucus to the south and east and was prominently involved in the Wars of the Diadochi the wars of Alexander's successors.
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After , Rome steadily conquered or annexed the cities of Asia Minor until it was wholly a Roman province. Under Roman rule, the land became stabilized; roads were built and the infrastructures of many of the cities improved. Turkish control increased in the region until CE when Asia Minor became part of the Ottoman Empire and, after its collapse, became Turkey.
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Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Mark, J. Asia Minor. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Mark, Joshua J. Last modified May 04, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 04 May Written by Joshua J. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Mark published on 04 May Remove Ads Advertisement. Bibliography Durant, W. The Life of Greece. Durant, W. Our Oriental Heritage. Freeman, K. Companion to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers. Naiads are water nymphs, and inhabit fountains, wells, springs, brooks, rivers, marshes, ponds and lagoons.
The essence of a naiad was bound to the water body she inhabited.
If a spring dried, the naiad within it died. In some stories naiads are depicted as dangerous creatures, because they could take men underwater when fascinated by their beauty, and these men were never to be seen again. Naiads were known by their jealous nature. A naiad that was once cheated by her husband is said to have blinded him in revenge.
In Greek mythology naiads were friendly creatures that helped sailors fight perilous storms. They also had the power of foresight, and were said to make prophecies. The following species of naiad are distinguished: Crinaeae, which live in fountains Limnades, which live in lakes Pagaeae, which live in springs Potameides, which live in rivers Eleiomomae, which live in marshes Water sprites Water sprites were human females with skins the colour of the sea.
They could breathe both water and air, and could therefore live in water and on land.
They were thought to be harmless, if only people left them alone. He appeared to be invincible, and no man seemed to be able to defeat him. Legend tells us this was because his mother, sea nymph Thetis , had tried to make him immortal after birth by dipping him the River Styx.
She only forgot to wet the heel by which she held him, which became his vulnerable spot. As the fights continued, Paris killed Achilles by shooting an arrow through his heel. Beowulf Beowulf was a hero in an old Anglo-Saxon poem. He defeated two monsters living in a lake in an underwater cave. The monster Grendel had been torturing the people in Danish mead-hall Heorot for many years, and he had taken many a brave soldier for his dinner.
When Beowulf and his army came, the people of Heorot could not believe they were capable of taking on the monster, but wanted to give them a chance nevertheless. Beowulf and his army waited for the monster in the hall, long after the residents had gone to sleep. As Grendel came it seemed at first Beowulf's men would get the worst of it, because their swords did not have any effect upon the giant monster's thick skin.
Than Beowulf grabbed Grendel's arm and would not let go. A long struggle followed, and eventually Beowulf managed to tear off the arm. Grendel returned to his mother, and bled to death. Next, Beowulf went to the underwater cave to kill the mother as well. He managed to do so with a sword present in the cave that had once belonged to Grendel.
As his man stared into the water and saw blood flooding upwards, they thought their great leader had perished. But Beowulf swam up, greeted his men, and returned to Heorot a hero. Zeus was angry of the Greek people for their holistic beliefs, and he ended the Bronze Age with a Great Flood.
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He built and provisioned an arc and consequently he and his wife Pyrrha were the sole survivors. As the flood ended they built an altar for Zeus and he changed rocks into children. The men were called Deucalions, and the women were called Pyrrhas. Daedalus and Icarus One Greek legend tells us the story of Daedalus and his son Icarus being locked up in the labyrinth of the Minotaur by king Minos. Daedalus had one day helped the queen to get together with a white bull she had fallen in love with, and thus the Minotaur was born.
A fierce creature, the Minotaur needed to be fed with at least fourteen Athens every nine years, so Daedalus and Icarus spend their time waiting until the Minotaur would find them, and eat them.
One day Daedalus had formulated an escape plan; he decided to fabricate massive wings from the wings of birds his son shot from time to time. He tied together the bird wings with wax. Eventually, the massive wings were ready and the two set out to escape. Daedalus warned his son not to fly too close to the sun, because the wax would melt and the wings would no longer work.
He flew too close to the sun, the wax melted and his wings fell apart. Unable to help him, Daedalus watched helplessly as his only son fell down with amazing speed and landed in the sea. The blow as he hit the water was probably so fierce he died instantly. Lawrence In German mythology, Sir Lawrence was a very good-looking knight.
One day water nymph Ondine came across him as he was on a quest, and she fell in love with him. As she pledged her love to him they were married. But as soon as a water nymph pledges herself to a human and bares his child, she will loose eternal life. After Ondine bore Lawrence a son, she began to age. Her changing appearance made Lawrence loose interest in his wife, and he soon started to see other women.
One day, Ondine caught her husband with another woman in the stables, and she cursed him in revenge. He was to breathe as long as he was wake, but if he ever fell asleep he would die because his breathing would stop. Lelawala In Native American legend, Lelawala was a beautiful maiden that was married off by her father to a king.
However, she despised the king, and longed to be with her true love He-No. She decided she wanted to find He-No at all cost, and as she paddled a canoe onto the Niagara River she was swept off the Falls. Fortunately He-No had been watching and caught Lelawala while she fell.
Oshun, African Goddess of Love and Sweet Waters
It is said they stayed together after that and their spirits still live in the caves beneath Niagara Falls to this day. Manu In Hindu mythology, Manu was a man that survived a great flood. One day as he washed his hands in the river, a fish swam into his hands and begged him to save his life. It was Matsya , an avatar the bodily manifestation of a god.
Manu put the fish in a jar, and as it grew bigger he subsequently placed in a tank, a river and than the ocean. Then, the fish warned him that soon a great flood would destroy all life. Manu built a boat and was towed onto a mountaintop by Matsya, thereby surviving the flood.
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Menelaus Menelaus was husband to Helena of Troy, before Paris came and took her away because he loved her. On his journey back from the Trojan War, he encountered Eudothea, daughter to the sea god Proteus. She confides in him and tells him that by capturing her father he could force him to reveal which of the gods Menelaus had offended, and how to satisfy them before returning home.
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Proteus usually slept on the beach among the whales, and there Menelaus captured him. Proteus, a shape-shifter in nature, turned into a lion, a snake, a pig, a tree, and some other things. However, Menelaus mentioned to hold him down and Proteus told him how to satisfy the gods. He also informed Menelaus that his brother Agamemnon was murdered, and that Odysseus stranded on the isle of Calypso on his way home from the Trojan War. Noah In the bible, Noah and his family are mentioned as the sole human survivors of the Great Flood.
Noah was of the tenth generation after Adam, and all peoples of the world would descend from his sons Shem, Ham and Japheth. According to Legend Noah was told by God to build an Arc to save himself and his family from the flood that would destroy all mankind. He brought two of every kind of animal with him in the Arc, one male and one female. After one hundred and fifty days the water receded, and the Arc washed onto the mountains of Ararat. Noah built an altar there, and afterwards continued his life.
It is said he lived to become years old, and therewith was the last of the ancient peoples that were immensely long-lived. The story has many versions and in the flood myths of different Ancient Near-East countries, the flood survivor is given different names.
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